camellia n : any of several shrubs or small evergreen trees having solitary white or pink or reddish flowers [syn: camelia]
EtymologyModern Latin, named from Joseph Kamel, or ‘Camellus’ (1661-1706), a Moravian botanist.
- /kəˈmi:lɪə/, /kəˈmɛlɪə/
Camellia () (Japanese: 椿 Tsubaki) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Theaceae, native to eastern and southern Asia from the Himalaya east to Japan and Indonesia. There are 100–250 existent species, with some controversy over the exact number. The genus was named by Linnaeus after Jesuit botanist Georg Joseph Kamel.
They are evergreen shrubs and small trees 2–20 m tall. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple, thick, serrated, usually glossy, and 3–17 cm long. The flowers are large and conspicuous, 1–12 cm diameter, with (in natural conditions) 5–9 petals; colour varies from white to pink and red, and yellow in a few species. The fruit is a dry capsule, sometimes subdivided into up to 5 compartments, each compartment containing up to 8 seeds.
The genus is generally adapted to acidic soils, and does not grow well on chalk or other calcium-rich soils. Most species also have a high rainfall requirement and will not tolerate drought. Some Camellias have been known to grow without much rainfall.
Camellia species are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species. See List of Lepidoptera that feed on Camellia.
Cultivation and usesCamellia sinensis is of major commercial importance because tea is made from its leaves. Tea oil is a sweet seasoning and cooking oil made by pressing the seeds of Camellia sinensis or Camellia oleifera.
Many other camellias are grown as ornamental plants for their flowers; about 3,000 cultivars and hybrids have been selected, many with double flowers. Camellia japonica (often simply called Camellia) is the most prominent species in cultivation, with over 2,000 named cultivars; next are C. reticulata, with over 400 named cultivars, and C. sasanqua, with over 300 named cultivars. Popular hybrids include C. × hiemalis (C. japonica × C. sasanqua) and C. × williamsii (C. japonica × C. salouenensis). They are highly valued in Japan and elsewhere for their very early flowering, often among the first flowers to appear in the late winter. Late frosts can damage the flowers.
PF1022A, a metabolite of Mycelia sterile, a fungus that inhabits the leaves of Camellia japonica is chemically altered to synthesise emodepside, an anthelmintic drug.
Camellias have a slow growth rate. Typically they will grow about 30 centimetres a year until mature although this varies depending on variety and location.
As a favourite flower
PlacesCamellia japonica is the state flower of Alabama as well as the city flower of Slidell, Louisiana, the Chinese municipality Chongqing and of Matsue City in Shimane Prefecture, Japan.
- Elizabeth, the Queen Mother grew Camellia in all of her gardens. As her body was taken from Royal Lodge, Windsor to lie in state at Westminster Hall of the Palace of Westminster, a Camellia from her gardens was placed on top of the flag-draped coffin.
- Ralph Peer, the music industry pioneer often credited as the father of country music, was a president of the American Camellia Society.
- Coco Chanel was very well known for wearing a white Camellia.
- The heroine of the novel The Lady of the Camellias always wears a camellia as her symbol. She was based on the real-life French courtesan Marie Duplessis.
- In Akira Kurosawa's 1962 film, Sanjuro, the main character takes on the surname 'Tsubaki' meaning camellia, which he happened to be looking at when asked for his name.
- The 1942 film Now Voyager starring Bette Davis as Charlotte Vale a middle aged spinster woman who is treated psychiatrically and as part of her treatment goes away on a cruise. While there she is romanced by a very charming Paul Henreid who affectionately calls her Camille and gives her camellias.
- In the manga Fruits Basket, the character Akito has a fondness for the camellia. This is because her true love, the character Shigure, gave her a camellia in their youth and proclaimed his love for her.
camellia in Bulgarian: Камелия
camellia in Danish: Kamelia-slægten
camellia in German: Kamelien
camellia in Spanish: Camellia
camellia in French: Camellia
camellia in Italian: Camellia
camellia in Dutch: Camellia
camellia in Japanese: ツバキ
camellia in Polish: Kamelia (roślina)
camellia in Portuguese: Camélia
camellia in Romanian: Camellia (plantă)
camellia in Russian: Камелия
camellia in Swedish: Kamelior
camellia in Vietnamese: Chi Trà
camellia in Turkish: Kamelya
camellia in Chinese: 山茶属